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Mechanical equipment series — the hero of turning “waste plastic” into “scrap”: shredder

Mechanical equipment series — the hero of turning “waste plastic” into “scrap”: shredder

With the continuous development of China’s machinery industry, shredder technology has been introduced into China for many years.

Various shredder manufacturers continuously design and improve the equipment by meeting the production needs of different customers. At present, the domestic shredder technology has been quite mature, and some advanced equipment has even been exported to European and American countries, which has made great contributions to the cause of environmental protection in various countries.

Shredder is also called shredder. As the name suggests, it is a machine for shredding and coarse crushing materials.

shredding-crushing-washing-granulating

For example, the automobile tire recycling industry, automobile recycling and dismantling industry, easy to pull can beverage recycling, various large and medium-sized waste recycling stations, waste metal recycling and crushing plants, waste plastic recycling and treatment industry, old household appliances, old furniture recycling industry, etc., the shredder is widely used

in various fields of environmental protection.

Among the mechanical equipment we know, most of the equipment we often see on the construction site are crushers, large stones are broken into small stones to meet the standards for building materials. For the shredder, it seems a little strange to us.

The word “crushing” and “tearing” are different in terms of words. But for the equipment of “crusher” and “shredder”, what is the difference between them?

The main function of shredder is a kind of equipment for coarse crushing and reduction of large recycled materials. When shredder has not been widely used, the main means for customers engaged in recycling industry is to use crusher.

The crusher breaks materials by means of high speed (usually between 400 ~ 500rpm) and high inertia impact. This equipment has the characteristics of high production capacity, low production cost and simple operation when crushing light materials and small materials.

However, for high hard materials and large materials, it is impossible to break large materials only by relying on the characteristics of high speed and high inertia impact. For high hard materials and large materials, equipment with relatively low speed and high torque is needed for rough crushing.

Generally, the way to increase torque is to reduce the speed of the motor of the high-power reducer and increase the torque.

Knowledge development:

Under normal operating conditions, the output power of power equipment or the input power of energy consuming equipment.

It is often measured in kilowatts. It also refers to the power that the machine produced by the factory can achieve during normal operation. That is to say, the power of a machine, the rated power of the machine is certain, P = FV, so the force generated by the machine is inversely proportional to the running speed.

For example, when the car is driving on a flat asphalt road, the traction force F required is smaller, and the speed per hour can be larger; When the road is uneven or uphill, the traction required is large, so you must drive at a low speed.

This is one of the reasons why we see that each shredder is driven by a reducer, and the crusher is only driven by belt pulley and counterweight pulley.

Shredder

Equipment use

Shredder is a kind of machine used for fine crushing. It is generally used to deal with unprocessed raw materials or leftover materials to make their size smaller. Compared with other crushers, the spindle with knife has low speed, low noise and low energy consumption.

A representative example is to tear up the leftover materials of plastic or rubber and melt them as raw materials for granulation, which can be used to make plastic bottles, tires or garbage cans again.

The shredder is used in the plastic recycling industry. It is commonly used for the crushing of waste large-diameter PE plastic pipes, baled plastic films, large piles of plastic sheets and machine head materials.

There are four main uses:

  1. Tear the unqualified products into small pieces for recycling.
  2. Reduce the volume of unprocessed raw materials for mixing with other materials.
  3. Tear up organic matter to make biofuels.
  4. Tear up some textile materials to facilitate the reuse of fibers, such as carpet crushing.

Classification of shredder:

Structure classification method:

The commonly used structures of shredders mainly include two mainstream forms: double shaft (or four shaft) shear type and single shaft roll cutting type, tearing type for coarse crushing and few other forms.

1) Shear shredder

The most common is the shear crusher, which has two to four knife shafts. It mainly depends on the principle of “cutting and cutting” to complete the crushing process. The principle of this crusher is to crush objects like scissors.

2) Roll cutting shredder

The following figure shows the structure of a roll cutting crusher. The machine is equipped with a plurality of blades on a rotating knife roller to form opposite cutting with the fixed blades to complete the effect of material crushing.

The machine is equipped with a plurality of blades on a rotating knife roller to form opposite cutting with the fixed blades to complete the effect of material crushing.

Number and classification of axes:

In terms of the number of shafts, they can be roughly divided into: single shaft shredder (1 shaft), double shaft shredder (2 shafts) and four shaft shredder (4 shafts).

Driving power classification:

Motor drive mode, hydraulic motor drive mode.

Sort the materials to be torn:

(this method is complicated and generally divided into several categories), ① plastic hard material Shredder (such as plastic pipes, plates, garbage cans, plastic baskets and other surfaces are hard plastic), ② plastic soft material Shredder (such as film, ton bags, woven bags, packaging bags and other plastics in soft and soft state), ③ metal shredder (shredder that can tear metal) ④ Branch and trunk straw Shredder (shredder that can crush straw branches).

Structure and transmission principle of two roller crusher

How to select shredder

When choosing the shredder, it is necessary for us to know that the purpose of using the shredder is to reduce the amount? Or rough crushing? At the same time, we should understand the status of materials, and then accurately locate the type and capacity model of shredder in combination with professional manufacturers.

For example, if we want to break the large-diameter pipeline, how should we choose the shredder? Single shaft shredder, double shaft shredder, four shaft shredder, or crusher?

Firstly, the large-diameter pipeline does not belong to the category similar to ore. according to the actual use of the crusher, it is inappropriate to select the crusher.

For the four axis shredder, this model is mainly suitable for thin-walled hollow containers (similar to plastic barrels and rubber barrels). It is not the best choice for large-diameter pipes.

For the double shaft shredder, it is driven by two motors and two shafts. Its working principle is to cut the materials through the rotary bite between the blade and the blade. This shredder has high requirements for motor torque.

In this way, the materials put in must be within the bearing range of motor torque in order to achieve the purpose of cutting materials. Otherwise, the equipment will frequently have the problem of forward and reverse rotation. In serious cases, it will jam, damage the motor and cause production accidents. There are risks that can not be ignored in enterprise operation and personnel safety.

For large-diameter pipes, the equipment needs to destroy their strong bearing capacity and high hardness. If you really want to cut the pipes with a double shaft shredder, you must select a motor with sufficient power to achieve the best effect.

For the single shaft shredder, it is driven in the form of single machine structure. Its working principle is to rotate the main shaft to make the oil cylinder drive the silo and push the materials onto the rotating main shaft, so as to achieve the purpose of material shredding.

During use, the actual contact area between the main shaft and materials can be controlled by current. If the current is too high, the equipment will be overload protected and the silo will be automatically adjusted to separate the materials from the main shaft and maintain the normal operation of the equipment.

For the motor used in this structure mode, generally, the power is small and flexible. There will be no jam in the spindle and the amount of materials. It has strong adaptability. It is also because of this characteristic that this type of equipment has a high degree of automation and has unique advantages in saving energy consumption and considering human cost. Based on various factors, for large-diameter pipeline materials, single shaft shredder is selected, which is more cost-effective.

However, we still analyze the actual situation according to the actual situation. The cost, actual use, adaptability, functionality and so on need to be considered in many aspects, rather than selecting the shredder according to the characteristics of specific materials and their own output requirements. The above analysis elements are relatively single, and only provide a reference for new understanding of the equipment.

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